Structural optimization has matured to the point that it can be routinely applied to a wide range of real design tasks. The purpose here is threefold. First, the general optimization task will be defined. Second, the state of the art in structural optimization will be reviewed. Finally, examples will be presented to demonstrate the level of sophistication possible in applying this technology. It is concluded that, while much research always remains, optimization technology has matured to the point where it can and should be used routinely for engineering design.